.. comment: -*- fill-column: 72; mode: rst; -*-
===============================
Package polexpr documentation
===============================
0.7.5 (2020/01/31)
==================
.. contents::
Basic syntax
------------
The syntax is::
\poldef polname(x):= expression in variable x;
where:
- in place of ``x`` an arbitrary *dummy variable* is authorized,
i.e. per default any of ``[a-z|A-Z]`` (more letters can be declared
under Unicode engines.)
- ``polname`` consists of letters, digits, and the ``_`` and
``'`` characters. It must start with a letter.
.. attention::
The ``'`` is authorized since ``0.5.1``. As a result some constructs
recognized by the ``\xintexpr`` parser, such as ``var1 'and' var2``
will get misinterpreted and cause errors. However these constructs
are unlikely to be frequently needed in polynomial expressions, and
the ``\xintexpr`` syntax offers alternatives, so it was deemed a
small evil. Of course the ``\xintexpr`` parser is modified only
temporarily during execution of ``\poldef``.
One can also issue::
\PolDef{polname}{expression in variable x}
which admits an optional first argument to modify the variable letter
from its default ``x``.
``\poldef f(x):= 1-x+x^2;``
defines polynomial ``f``. Polynomial names must start with a
letter and may contain letters, digits, underscores and the right
tick character. The
variable must be a single letter. The colon character is optional.
The semi-colon at end of expression is mandatory.
``\PolDef{f}{1-x+x^2}``
does the same as ``\poldef f(x):= 1-x+x^2;`` To use another letter
than ``x`` in the expression, one must pass it as an extra optional
argument to ``\PolDef``. Useful if the semi-colon has been assigned
some non-standard catcode by some package.
``\PolLet{g}={f}``
saves a copy of ``f`` under name ``g``. Also usable without ``=``.
``\poldef f(z):= f(z)^2;``
redefines ``f`` in terms of itself.
``\poldef f(T):= f(f(T));``
again redefines ``f`` in terms of its (new) self.
``\poldef k(z):= f(z)-g(g(z)^2)^2;``
should now define the zero polynomial... Let's check:
``\[ k(z) = \PolTypeset[z]{k} \]``
``\PolDiff{f}{f'}``
sets ``f'`` to the derivative of ``f``. The name doesn't have to be
``f'`` (in fact the ``'`` is licit only since ``0.5.1``).
.. important::
This is not done automatically. If some new definition needs to use
the derivative of some available polynomial, that derivative
polynomial must have been defined via ``\PolDiff``: something like
``T'(x)^2`` will not work without a prior ``\PolDiff{T}{T'}``.
``\PolDiff{f'}{f''}``
obtains second derivative.
``\PolDiff[3]{f}{f'''}``
computes the third derivative.
::
$f(z) = \PolTypeset[z]{f} $\newline
$f'(z) = \PolTypeset[z]{f'} $\newline
$f''(z) = \PolTypeset[z]{f''} $\newline
$f'''(z)= \PolTypeset[z]{f'''} $\par
.. important::
The package does not currently know rational functions: ``/`` in
a parsed polynomial expression does the Euclidean quotient::
(1-x^2)/(1-x)
does give ``1+x`` but ::
(1/(1-x))*(1-x^2)
evaluates to zero. This will work as expected::
\poldef k(x):= (x-1)(x-2)(x-3)(x-4)/(x^2-5x+4);
.. _warningtacit:
.. attention::
``1/2 x^2`` skips the space and is treated like ``1/(2*x^2)`` because
of the tacit multiplication rules of \xintexpr. But this means it
gives zero! Thus one must use ``(1/2)x^2`` or ``1/2*x^2`` or
``(1/2)*x^2`` for disambiguation: ``x - 1/2*x^2 + 1/3*x^3...``. It is
even simpler to move the denominator to the right: ``x - x^2/2 +
x^3/3 - ...``.
It is worth noting that ``1/2(x-1)(x-2)`` suffers the same issue:
xint_ tacit multiplication always "ties more", hence this gets
interpreted as ``1/(2*(x-1)*(x-2))`` which gives zero by polynomial
division. Thus, use one of ``(1/2)(x-1)(x-2)``, ``1/2*(x-1)(x-2)`` or
``(x-1)(x-2)/2``.
After::
\poldef f_1(x):= 25(x-1)(x^2-2)(x-3)(x-4)(x-5);%
\poldef f_2(x):= 37(x-1)(x^2-2)(x-6)(x-7)(x-8);%
the macro call ``\PolGCD{f_1}{f_2}{k}`` sets ``k`` to the (unitary) GCD of
``f_1`` and ``f_2`` (hence to the expansion of ``(x-1)(x^2-2)``.)
``\PolToExpr{k}``
will (expandably) give in this case ``x^3-x^2-2*x+2``. This is
useful for console or file output (the syntax is Maple- and
PSTricks-compatible; the letter used in output can be
(non-expandably) changed via a redefinition of `\\PolToExprVar`_.)
``\PolToExpr*{k}``
gives ascending powers: ``2-2*x-x^2+x^3``.
Examples of localization of roots
---------------------------------
- To make printed decimal numbers more enjoyable than via
``\xintSignedFrac``::
\renewcommand\PolTypesetOne[1]{\PolDecToString{\xintREZ{#1}}}%
``\PolDecToString`` will use decimal notation to incorporate the power
of ten part; and the ``\xintREZ`` will have the effect to suppress
trailing zeros if present in raw numerator (if those digits end up
after decimal mark.) Notice that the above are expandable macros and
that one can also do::
\renewcommand\PolToExprCmd[1]{\PolDecToString{\xintREZ{#1}}}%
to modify output of `\\PolToExpr{polname}`_.
- For extra info in log file use ``\xintverbosetrue``.
- Only for some of these examples is the output included here.
A typical example
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In this example the polynomial is square-free.
::
\poldef f(x) := x^7 - x^6 - 2x + 1;
\PolToSturm{f}{f}
\PolSturmIsolateZeros{f}
The \PolTypeset{f} polynomial has \PolSturmNbOfIsolatedZeros{f} distinct real
roots which are located in the following intervals:
\PolPrintIntervals{f}
Here is the second root with ten more decimal digits:
\PolRefineInterval[10]{f}{2}
\[\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft{f}{2}`_.
As a side effect the function ``polname()`` is recognized as a
genuine ``\xintexpr...\relax`` function for (exact) numerical
evaluation (or within an ``\xintdefvar`` assignment.) It computes
values not according to the original expression but via the Horner
scheme corresponding to the polynomial coefficients.
.. attention::
Release ``0.3`` also did the necessary set-up to let the
polynomial be known to the ``\xintfloatexpr`` (or
``\xintdeffloatvar``) parser.
Since ``0.4`` this isn't done automatically. Even more, a
previously existing floating point variant of the same name will
be let undefined again, to avoid hard to debug mismatches between
exact and floating point polynomials. This also applies when the
polynomial is produced not via ``\poldef`` or ``\PolDef`` but as
a product of the other package macros.
See `\\PolGenFloatVariant{polname}`_.
The original expression is lost after parsing, and in particular
the package provides no way to typeset it. This has to be done
manually, if needed.
.. _PolDef:
``\PolDef[letter]{polname}{expression in letter}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Does the same as `\\poldef `_ in an undelimited macro
format (thus avoiding potential problems with the catcode of the
semi-colon in presence of some packages.) In absence of the
``[letter]`` optional argument, the variable is assumed to be ``x``.
.. _PolGenFloatVariant:
``\PolGenFloatVariant{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Makes the polynomial also usable in the ``\xintfloatexpr`` parser.
It will therein evaluates via an Horner scheme with coefficients
already pre-rounded to the float precision.
See also `\\PolToFloatExpr{polname}`_.
.. attention::
Release ``0.3`` did this automatically on ``\PolDef`` and
``\poldef`` but this was removed at ``0.4`` for optimization.
Any operation, for example generating the derivative polynomial,
or dividing two polynomials or using the ``\PolLet``, **must** be
followed by explicit usage of ``\PolGenFloatVariant{polname}`` if
the new polynomial is to be used in ``\xintfloatexpr`` or alike
context.
.. _PolLet:
``\PolLet{polname_2}={polname_1}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Makes a copy of the already defined polynomial ``polname_1`` to a
new one ``polname_2``. Same effect as
``\PolDef{polname_2}{polname_1(x)}`` but with less overhead. The
``=`` is optional.
.. _PolGlobalLet:
``\PolGlobalLet{polname_2}={polname_1}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Acts globally.
.. _PolAssign:
``\PolAssign{polname}\toarray\macro``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Defines a one-argument expandable macro ``\macro{#1}`` which expands
to the (raw) #1th polynomial coefficient.
- Attention, coefficients here are indexed starting at 1.
- With #1=-1, -2, ..., ``\macro{#1}`` returns leading coefficients.
- With #1=0, returns the number of coefficients, i.e. ``1 + deg f``
for non-zero polynomials.
- Out-of-range #1's return ``0/1[0]``.
See also `\\PolNthCoeff{polname}{number}`_. The main difference is that
with ``\PolAssign``, ``\macro`` is made a prefix to ``1 + deg f``
already defined (hidden to user) macros holding individually the
coefficients but `\\PolNthCoeff{polname}{number}`_ does each time the job
to expandably recover the ``Nth`` coefficient, and due to
expandability can not store it in a macro for future usage (of course,
it can be an argument in an ``\edef``.) The other difference
is the shift by one in indexing, mentioned above (negative
indices act the same in both.)
.. _PolGet:
``\PolGet{polname}\fromarray\macro``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Does the converse operation to
``\PolAssign{polname}\toarray\macro``. Each individual
``\macro{number}`` gets expanded in an ``\edef`` and then normalized
via xintfrac_\ 's macro ``\xintRaw``.
The leading zeros are removed from the polynomial.
(contrived) Example::
\xintAssignArray{1}{-2}{5}{-3}\to\foo
\PolGet{f}\fromarray\foo
This will define ``f`` as would have ``\poldef f(x):=1-2x+5x^2-3x^3;``.
.. note::
Prior to ``0.5``, coefficients were not normalized via
``\xintRaw`` for internal storage.
.. _PolFromCSV:
``\PolFromCSV{polname}{}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Defines a polynomial directly from the comma separated list of values
(or a macro expanding to such a list) of its coefficients, the *first
item* gives the constant term, the *last item* gives the leading
coefficient, except if zero, then it is dropped (iteratively). List
items are each expanded in an ``\edef`` and then put into normalized
form via xintfrac_\ 's macro ``\xintRaw``.
As leading zero coefficients are removed::
\PolFromCSV{f}{0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}
defines the zero polynomial, which holds only one coefficient.
See also expandable macro `\\PolToCSV <\\PolToCSV{polname}_>`_.
.. note::
Prior to ``0.5``, coefficients were not normalized via
``\xintRaw`` for internal storage.
.. _PolTypeset:
``\PolTypeset{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Typesets in descending powers in math mode. It uses letter ``x`` but
this can be changed via an optional argument::
\PolTypeset[z]{polname}
By default zero coefficients are skipped (issue ``\poltypesetalltrue``
to get all of them in output).
These commands (whose meanings will be found in the package code)
can be re-defined for customization. Their default definitions are
expandable, but this is not a requirement.
.. _PolTypesetCmd:
``\PolTypesetCmd{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Checks if the coefficient is ``1`` or ``-1`` and then skips printing
the ``1``, except for the constant term. Also it sets conditional
`\\PolIfCoeffIsPlusOrMinusOne{A}{B}`_.
The actual printing of the coefficients, when not equal to plus or
minus one is handled by `\\PolTypesetOne{raw_coeff}`_.
.. _PolTypesetOne:
``\PolTypesetOne{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The default is ``\xintSignedFrac`` but this macro is annoying as it
insists to use a power of ten, and not decimal notation.
One can do things such as for example: [#]_
::
\renewcommand\PolTypesetOne[1]{\num{\xintPFloat[5]{#1}}}
\renewcommand\PolTypesetOne[1]{\num{\xintRound{4}{#1}}}
where e.g. we used the ``\num`` macro of ``siunitx`` as it
understands floating point notation.
.. [#] the difference in the syntaxes of ``\xintPFloat`` and
``\xintRound`` is explained from the fact that
``\xintPFloat`` by default uses the prevailing precision
hence the extra argument like here ``5`` is an optional one.
One can also give a try to using `\\PolDecToString{decimal number}`_
which uses decimal notation (at least for the numerator part).
.. _PolTypesetMonomialCmd:
``\PolTypesetMonomialCmd``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This decides how a monomial (in variable ``\PolVar`` and with
exponent ``\PolIndex``) is to be printed. The default does nothing
for the constant term, ``\PolVar`` for the first degree and
``\PolVar^{\PolIndex}`` for higher degrees monomials. Beware that
``\PolIndex`` expands to digit tokens and needs termination in
``\ifnum`` tests.
.. _PolTypesetCmdPrefix:
``\PolTypesetCmdPrefix{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to a ``+`` if the ``raw_coeff`` is zero or positive, and to
nothing if ``raw_coeff`` is negative, as in latter case the
``\xintSignedFrac`` used by `\\PolTypesetCmd{raw_coeff}`_ will put
the ``-`` sign in front of the fraction (if it is a fraction) and
this will thus serve as separator in the typeset formula. Not used
for the first term.
.. _PolTypeset*:
``\PolTypeset*{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Typesets in ascending powers. Use e.g. ``[h]`` optional argument
(after the ``*``) to use letter ``h`` rather than ``x``.
.. _PolDiff:
``\PolDiff{polname_1}{polname_2}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_2`` to the first derivative of ``polname_1``. It
is allowed to issue ``\PolDiff{f}{f}``, effectively replacing ``f``
by ``f'``.
Coefficients of the result ``polname_2`` are irreducible fractions
(see `Technicalities`_ for the whole story.)
.. _PolDiff[N]:
``\PolDiff[N]{polname_1}{polname_2}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_2`` to the ``N``-th derivative of ``polname_1``.
Identical arguments is allowed. With ``N=0``, same effect as
``\PolLet{polname_2}={polname_1}``. With negative ``N``, switches to
using ``\PolAntiDiff``.
.. _PolAntiDiff:
``\PolAntiDiff{polname_1}{polname_2}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_2`` to the primitive of ``polname_1`` vanishing
at zero.
Coefficients of the result ``polname_2`` are irreducible fractions
(see `Technicalities`_ for the whole story.)
.. _PolAntiDiff[N]:
``\PolAntiDiff[N]{polname_1}{polname_2}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_2`` to the result of ``N`` successive integrations on
``polname_1``. With negative ``N``, it switches to using ``\PolDiff``.
.. _PolDivide:
``\PolDivide{polname_1}{polname_2}{polname_Q}{polname_R}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_Q`` and ``polname_R`` to be the quotient and
remainder in the Euclidean division of ``polname_1`` by
``polname_2``.
.. _PolQuo:
``\PolQuo{polname_1}{polname_2}{polname_Q}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_Q`` to be the quotient in the Euclidean division
of ``polname_1`` by ``polname_2``.
.. _PolRem:
``\PolRem{polname_1}{polname_2}{polname_R}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_R`` to be the remainder in the Euclidean division
of ``polname_1`` by ``polname_2``.
.. _PolGCD:
``\PolGCD{polname_1}{polname_2}{polname_GCD}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This sets ``polname_GCD`` to be the (monic) GCD of the two first
polynomials. It is a unitary polynomial except if both ``polname_1``
and ``polname_2`` vanish, then ``polname_GCD`` is the zero
polynomial.
.. ``\PolIGCD{polname_1}{polname_2}{polname_iGCD}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
**NOT YET**
This **assumes** that the two polynomials have integer coefficients.
It then computes the greatest common divisor in the integer
polynomial ring, normalized to have a positive leading coefficient
(if the inputs are not both zero).
``\PolIContent{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
**NOT YET**
This computes a positive rational number such that dividing the
polynomial with it returns an integer coefficients polynomial with
no common factor among the coefficients.
.. _PolToSturm:
``\PolToSturm{polname}{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
With ``polname`` being for example ``P``, the macro starts by
computing polynomials ``P`` and ``P'``, then computes the (opposite
of the) remainder in euclidean division, iteratively.
The last non-zero remainder ``P_N_`` (where ``N`` is obtainable as
`\\PolSturmChainLength{sturmname}`_) is up to a factor
the GCD of ``P`` and ``P'`` hence it is a constant if and only if
``P`` is square-free.
.. note::
- Since ``0.5`` all these polynomials are divided by their rational
content, so they have integer coefficients with no common factor,
and the last one if a constant is either ``1`` or ``-1``.
- After this normalization to primitive polynomials, they are
stored internally as ``sturmname_k_``, ``k=0,1, ...``.
- These polynomials are used internally only. To keep them as
genuine declared polynomials also after the macro call, use the
starred variant `PolToSturm*`_.
.. note::
It is perfectly allowed to use the polynomial name as Sturm chain name:
``\PolToSturm{f}(f}``.
The macro then declares ``sturmname_0``, ``sturmname_1``, ..., which are
the (non-declared) ``sturmname_k_`` divided by the last one. Division is
not done if this last one is the constant ``1`` or ``-1``, i.e. if the
original polynomial was square-free. These polynomials are primitive
polynomials too, i.e. with integer coefficients having no common factor.
Thus ``sturmname_0`` has exactly the same real and complex roots as
polynomial ``polname``, but with each root now of multiplicity one:
i.e. it is the "square-free part" of original polynomial ``polname``.
Notice that ``sturmname_1`` isn't necessarily the derivative of
``sturmname_0`` due to the various normalizations.
The polynomials ``sturmname_k`` main utility is for the execution of
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_. Be careful not to use these
names ``sturmname_0``, ``sturmname_1``, etc... for defining other
polynomials after having done ``\PolToSturm{polname}{sturmname}`` and
before executing ``\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`` else the
latter will behave erroneously.
`\\PolSturmChainLength{sturmname}`_ gives the index of the last
element of the Sturm chain.
.. _PolToSturm*:
``\PolToSturm*{polname}{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Does the same as `un-starred version `_ and additionally it
keeps for user usage the memory of the *un-normalized* Sturm chain
polynomials ``sturmname_k_``, ``k=0,1, ..., N``, with
``N`` being `\\PolSturmChainLength{sturmname}`_.
.. note::
This behaviour was modified at ``0.6``, anyhow the macro was
broken at ``0.5``.
.. hint::
The square-free part of ``polname`` is ``sturmname_0``, and their
quotient is the polynomial with name
``sturname_\PolSturmChainLength{sturmname}_``. It thus easy to
set-up a loop iteratively computing the latter until the last one
is a constant, thus obtaining the decomposition of an ``f`` as
a product ``c f_1 f_2 f_3 ...`` of a constant and square-free (primitive)
polynomials, where each ``f_i`` divides its predecessor.
.. _PolSetToSturmChainSignChangesAt:
``\PolSetToSturmChainSignChangesAt{\macro}{sturmname}{fraction}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Sets macro ``\macro`` to the number of sign changes in the Sturm
chain with name prefix ``sturmname``, at location ``fraction``
(which must be in format as acceptable by the xintfrac_ macros.)
.. note::
The author was lazy and did not provide rather an expandable
variant, where one would do ``\edef\macro{\PolNbOf...}``.
This will presumably get added in a future release.
After some hesitation it was decided the macro would by default
act globally. To make the scope of its macro definition local,
use ``[\empty]`` as extra optional argument.
.. _PolSetToNbOfZerosWithin:
``\PolSetToNbOfZerosWithin{\macro}{sturmname}{value_a}{value_b}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Applies the `Sturm Theorem`_ to set ``\macro`` to the exact number
of **distinct** roots of ``sturmname_0`` in the interval ``(value_a,
value_b]`` (the macro first re-orders the value for ``value_a <=
value_b`` to hold).
.. note::
The author was lazy and did not provide rather an expandable
variant, where one would do ``\edef\macro{\PolNbOf...}``.
This will presumably get added in future.
After some hesitation it was decided the macro would by default
act globally. To make the scope of its macro definition local,
use ``[\empty]`` as extra optional argument.
See also the expandable
`\\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}`_, from
which it is immediate (with ``\numexpr``) to create an expandable
variant of this macro. However the difference is that this macro
requires only `\\PolToSturm `_ to have been executed,
whereas the expandable variant requires prior execution of
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros `_.
See also the expandable
`\\PolSturmNbWithMultOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}`_
which requires prior execution of
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros* `_.
.. _PolSturmIsolateZeros:
``\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The macros locates, using `Sturm theorem`_, as many disjoint
intervals as there are (real) roots.
.. important::
The Sturm chain must have been produced by an earlier
`\\PolToSturm{polname}{sturmname}`_.
Why does this macro ask for argument the name of Sturm chain,
rather than the name of a polynomial? well this is mainly for
legacy reason, and because it is accompanied by other macros for
which it is simpler to assume the argument will be the name of an
already computed Sturm chain.
Notice that ``\PolToSturm{f}{f}`` is perfectly legal (the
``sturmname`` can be same as the ``polname``): it defines
polynomials ``f_0``, ``f_1``, ... having ``f`` has name prefix.
Such a prior call
to ``\PolToSturm`` must have been made at any rate for
``\PolSturmIsolateZeros`` to be usable.
After its execution they are two types of such intervals (stored in
memory and accessible via macros or xintexpr_ variables, see below):
- singleton ``{a}``: then ``a`` is a root, (necessarily a decimal
number, but not all such decimal numbers are exactly identified yet).
- open intervals ``(a,b)``: then there is exactly one root ``z``
such that ``a < z < b``, and the end points are guaranteed to not
be roots.
The interval boundaries are decimal numbers, originating
in iterated decimal subdivision from initial intervals
``(-10^E, 0)`` and ``(0, 10^E)`` with ``E`` chosen initially large
enough so that all roots are enclosed; if zero is a root it is always
identified as such. The non-singleton intervals are of the
type ``(a/10^f, (a+1)/10^f)`` with ``a`` an integer, which is
neither ``0`` nor ``-1``. Hence either ``a`` and ``a+1`` are both positive
or they are both negative.
One does not *a priori* know what will be the lengths of these
intervals (except that they are always powers of ten), they
vary depending on how many digits two successive roots have in
common in their respective decimal expansions.
.. important::
If some two consecutive intervals share an end-point, no
information is yet gained about the separation between the two
roots which could at this stage be arbitrarily small.
See `\\PolRefineInterval*{sturmname}{index}`_ which addresses
this issue.
.. This procedure is covariant
with the independent variable ``x`` becoming ``-x``.
Hmm, pas sûr et trop fatigué
The interval boundaries (and exactly found roots) are made available
for future computations in ``\xintexpr``-essions or polynomial
definitions as variables ``L_1``,
``L_2``, etc..., for the left end-points and
``R_1``, ``R_2``, ..., for the right
end-points.
Thus for example, if ``sturmname`` is ``f``, one can use the
xintexpr_ variables ``fL_1``, ``fL_2``, ... to refer in expressions
to the left end-points (or to the exact root, if left and right end
points coincide). Additionally, xintexpr_ variable ``fZ_1_isknown``
will have value ``1`` if the root in the first interval is known,
and ``0`` otherwise. And similarly for the other intervals.
Also, macros `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft{sturmname}{index}`_ and
`\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight{sturmname}{index}`_ are provided which
expand to these same values, written in decimal notation (i.e.
pre-processed by `\\PolDecToString `_.) And there
is also `\\PolSturmIfZeroExactlyKnown{sturmname}{index}{A}{B}`_.
.. important::
Trailing zeroes in the stored decimal numbers accessible via the
macros are significant: they are also present in the decimal
expansion of the exact root.
These variables and macros are automatically updated when one next
uses macros such as `\\PolRefineInterval*{sturmname}{index}`_.
The start of decimal expansion of a positive ``k``-th root is given
by `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft{sturmname}{k}
`_, and for a negative root it is given
by `\PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight{sturmname}{k}
`_. These two decimal
numbers are either both zero or both of the same sign.
The number of distinct roots is obtainable expandably as
`\\PolSturmNbOfIsolatedZeros{sturmname}`_.
Furthermore
`\\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}`_ and
`\\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualToExpr{expression}`_.
will expandably compute respectively the number of real roots at
most equal to ``value`` or ``expression``, and the same but with
multiplicities.
.. note::
In the current implementation the xintexpr_ variables
and xinttools_ arrays are globally defined. On the
other hand the Sturm sequence polynomials obey the current scope.
.. note::
As all computations are done *exactly* there can be no errors...
apart those due to bad coding by author. The results are exact
bounds for the mathematically exact real roots.
Future releases will perhaps also provide macros based on Newton
or Regula Falsi methods. Exact computations with such methods
lead however quickly to very big fractions, and this forces usage
of some rounding scheme for the abscissas if computation times
are to remain reasonable. This raises issues of its own, which
are studied in numerical mathematics.
.. _PolSturmIsolateZeros*:
``\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The macro does the same as `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_ and
then in addition it does the extra work to determine all
multiplicities (of the real roots):
after executing this macro,
`\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroMultiplicity{sturmname}{index}`_ will expand
to the multiplicity of the root located in the ``index``\ -th
interval (intervals are enumerated from left to right, with index
starting at ``1``).
Furthermore, if for example the ``sturmname`` is ``f``, xintexpr_
variables ``fM_1``, ``fM_2``... hold the multiplicities thus
computed.
.. note::
It is **not** necessary to have executed the `PolToSturm*`_ starred
variant, as the non-starred variant keeps internally the memory of the
original GCD (and even of the full non-normalized original Sturm
chain), even though it does not make the declarations as *user-level*
genuine polynomials.
See `The degree nine polynomial with 0.99, 0.999, 0.9999 as triple
roots`_ for an example.
.. _PolSturmIsolateZeros**:
``\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The macro does the same as `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}`_ and
in addition it does the extra work to determine all the *rational*
roots.
.. note::
After execution of this macro, a root is "known" if and only if
it is rational.
Furthermore, primitive polynomial ``sturmname_sqf_norr`` is created
to match the (square-free) ``sturmname_0`` from which all rational
roots have been removed (see `\\polexprsetup`_ for customizing this
name). The number of distinct rational roots is thus the difference
between the degrees of these two polynomials (see also
`\\PolSturmNbOfRationalRoots{sturmname}`_).
And ``sturmname_norr`` is ``sturmname_0_`` from which all rational
roots have been removed (see `\\polexprsetup`_), i.e. it contains
the irrational roots of the original polynomial, with the same
multiplicities.
See `A degree five polynomial with three rational
roots`_ for an example.
.. _PolSturmIsolateZerosAndGetMultiplicities:
``\PolSturmIsolateZerosAndGetMultiplicities{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is another name for `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}`_.
.. _PolSturmIsolateZerosGetMultiplicitiesAndRationalRoots:
``\PolSturmIsolateZerosGetMultiplicitiesAndRationalRoots{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is another name for `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_.
``\PolSturmIsolateZerosAndFindRationalRoots{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This works exactly like `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_
(inclusive of declaring the polynomials ``sturmname_sqf_norr`` and
``sturmname_norr`` with no rational roots) except that it does *not*
compute the multiplicities of the *non-rational* roots.
.. note::
There is no macro to find the rational roots but not compute
their multiplicities at the same time.
.. attention::
This macro does *not* define xintexpr_ variables
``sturmnameM_1``, ``sturmnameM_2``, ... holding the
multiplicities and it leaves the multiplicity array (whose accessor
is `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroMultiplicity{sturmname}{index}`_) into
a broken state, as all non-rational roots will supposedly have
multiplicity one. This means that the output of
`\\PolPrintIntervals* `_ for example will be
erroneous for the intervals with irrational roots.
I decided to document it because finding multiplicities of the
non rational roots is somewhat costly, and one may be interested
only into finding the rational roots (of course random
polynomials with integer coefficients will not have *any*
rational root anyhow).
.. _PolRefineInterval*:
``\PolRefineInterval*{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The ``index``\ -th interval (starting indexing at one) is further
subdivided as many times as is necessary in order for the newer
interval to have both its end-points distinct from the end-points of
the original interval. This means that the ``k``\ th root is then
strictly separated from the other roots.
.. _PolRefineInterval[N]:
``\PolRefineInterval[N]{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The ``index``\ -th interval (starting count at one) is further
subdivided once, reducing its length by a factor of 10. This is done
``N`` times if the optional argument ``[N]`` is present.
.. _PolEnsureIntervalLength:
``\PolEnsureIntervalLength{sturmname}{index}{E}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The ``index``\ -th interval is subdivided until its length becomes at
most ``10^E``. This means (for ``E<0``) that the first ``-E`` digits
after decimal mark of the ``k``\ th root will then be known exactly.
.. _PolEnsureIntervalLengths:
``\PolEnsureIntervalLengths{sturmname}{E}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The intervals as obtained from ``\PolSturmIsolateZeros`` are (if
necessary) subdivided further by (base 10) dichotomy in order for
each of them to have length at most ``10^E`` (length will be shorter
than ``10^E`` in output only if it did not change or became zero.)
This means that decimal expansions of all roots will be known with
``-E`` digits (for ``E<0``) after decimal mark.
.. _PolPrintIntervals:
``\PolPrintIntervals[varname]{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is a convenience macro which prints the bounds for the roots
``Z_1``, ``Z_2``, ... (the optional argument ``varname`` allows to
specify a replacement for the default ``Z``). This will be done (by
default) in a
math mode ``array``, one interval per row, and pattern ``rcccl``,
where the second and fourth column hold the ``<`` sign, except when
the interval reduces to a singleton, which means the root is known
exactly.
.. attention::
This macro was refactored at 0.7, its default output remained
identical but the ways to customize it got completely
modified.
See next macros which govern its output.
``\PolPrintIntervalsNoRealRoots``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Executed in place of an ``array`` environment, when there are no
real roots. Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsNoRealRoots{}
``\PolPrintIntervalsBeginEnv``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsBeginEnv{\[\begin{array}{rcccl}}
``\PolPrintIntervalsEndEnv``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsEndEnv{\end{array}\]}
``\PolPrintIntervalsKnownRoot``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsKnownRoot{%
&&\PolPrintIntervalsTheVar_{\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex}%
&=&\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero
}
``\PolPrintIntervalsUnknownRoot``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsUnknownRoot{%
\PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint&<&%
\PolPrintIntervalsTheVar_{\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex}&<&%
\PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint
}
.. _PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero:
``\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero{\PolPrintIntervalsTheLeftEndPoint}
.. _PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint:
``\PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint{\PolPrintIntervalsTheLeftEndPoint}
.. _PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint:
``\PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Default definition is::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint{\PolPrintIntervalsTheRightEndPoint}
.. _PolPrintIntervals*:
``\PolPrintIntervals*[varname]{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This starred variant produces an alternative output (which
displays the root multiplicity), and is provided as an
example of customization.
As replacement for `\\PolPrintIntervalsKnownRoot`_,
`\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero`_,
`\\PolPrintIntervalsUnknownRoot`_ it uses its own
``\POL@@PrintIntervals...`` macros. We only reproduce here one
definition::
\newcommand\POL@@PrintIntervalsPrintExactZero{%
\displaystyle
\xintSignedFrac{\PolPrintIntervalsTheLeftEndPoint}%
}%
Multiplicities are printed using this auxiliary macro:
``\PolPrintIntervalsPrintMultiplicity``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
whose default definition is::
\newcommand\PolPrintIntervalsPrintMultiplicity{(\mbox{mult. }\PolPrintIntervalsTheMultiplicity)}
.. _PolMapCoeffs:
``\PolMapCoeffs{\macro}{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It modifies ('in-place': original coefficients get lost) each
coefficient of the defined polynomial via the *expandable* macro
``\macro``. The degree is adjusted as necessary if some leading
coefficients vanish after the operation. In replacement text of
``\macro``, ``\index`` expands to the coefficient index (which is
defined to be zero for the constant term).
Notice that ``\macro`` will have to handle inputs of the shape
``A/B[N]`` (xintfrac_ internal notation). This means that it probably
will have to be expressed in terms of macros from xintfrac_ package.
Example::
\def\foo#1{\xintMul{#1}{\the\numexpr\index*\index\relax}}
(or with ``\xintSqr{\index}``) to replace ``n``-th coefficient
``f_n`` by ``f_n*n^2``.
.. _PolReduceCoeffs:
``\PolReduceCoeffs{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
About the same as ``\PolMapCoeffs{\xintIrr}{polname}`` (but
maintaining a ``[0]`` postfix for speedier xintfrac_ parsing when
polynomial function is used for computations.) This is a
one-argument macro, working 'in-place'.
.. _PolReduceCoeffs*:
``\PolReduceCoeffs*{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This starred variant leaves un-touched the decimal exponent in the
internal representation of the fractional coefficients, i.e. if a
coefficient is internally ``A/B[N]``, then ``A/B`` is reduced to
smallest terms, but the ``10^N`` part is kept as is. Note: if the
polynomial is freshly defined directly via `\\PolFromCSV
`_ its coefficients might still be internally in some
format like ``1.5e7``; the macro will anyhow always first do the
needed conversion to strict format ``A/B[N]``.
Evaluations with polynomials treated by this can be much faster than
with those handled by the non-starred variant
`\\PolReduceCoeffs{polname}`_: as the numerators and denominators
remain smaller, this proves very beneficial in favorable cases
(especially when the coefficients are decimal numbers) to the
expansion speed of the xintfrac_ macros used internally by
`\\PolEval `_.
.. _PolMakeMonic:
``\PolMakeMonic{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Divides by the leading coefficient. It is recommended to execute
`\\PolReduceCoeffs*{polname}`_ immediately afterwards. This is not
done automatically, due to the case the original polynomial had integer
coefficients and we want to keep the leading one as common
denominator.
.. _PolMakePrimitive:
``\PolMakePrimitive{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Divides by the integer content see (`\\PolIContent
`_). This thus produces a polynomial with integer
coefficients having no common factor. The sign of the leading
coefficient is not modified.
Expandable macros
-----------------
All these macros expand completely in two steps except ``\PolToExpr``
and ``\PolToFloatExpr`` (and their auxiliaries) which need a
``\write``, ``\edef`` or a ``\csname...\endcsname`` context.
.. _PolEvalAtExpr:
``\PolEval{polname}\AtExpr{numerical expression}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It boils down to
``\xinttheexpr polname(numerical expression)\relax``.
.. _PolEvalAt:
``\PolEval{polname}\At{fraction}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Evaluates the polynomial at value ``fraction`` which must be in (or
expand to) a format acceptable to the xintfrac_ macros.
.. _PolEvalReducedAtExpr:
``\PolEvalReduced{polname}\AtExpr{numerical expression}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Boils down to ``\xinttheexpr reduce(polname(numerical expression))\relax``.
.. _PolEvalReducedAt:
``\PolEvalReduced{polname}\At{fraction}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Evaluates the polynomial at value ``fraction`` which must be in (or
expand to) a format acceptable to the xintfrac_ macros, and produce
an irreducible fraction.
.. _PolFloatEvalAtExpr:
``\PolFloatEval{polname}\AtExpr{numerical expression}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Boils down to ``\xintthefloatexpr polname(numerical expression)\relax``.
This is done via a Horner Scheme (see `\\poldef `_ and
`\\PolGenFloatVariant{polname}`_), with already rounded
coefficients. [#]_ To use the *exact coefficients* with *exactly
executed* additions and multiplications, just insert it in the float
expression as in this example: [#]_
::
\xintthefloatexpr 3.27*\xintexpr f(2.53)\relax^2\relax
The ``f(2.53)`` is exactly computed then rounded at the time of
getting raised to the power ``2``. Moving the ``^2`` inside, that
operation would also be treated exactly.
.. [#] Anyway each floating point operation starts by rounding its
operands to the floating point precision.
.. [#] The ``\xintexpr`` here could be ``\xinttheexpr`` but that
would be less efficient. Cf. xintexpr_ documentation about
nested expressions.
.. _PolFloatEvalAt:
``\PolFloatEval{polname}\At{fraction}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Evaluates the polynomial at value ``fraction`` which must be in (or
expand to) a format acceptable to the xintfrac_ macros, and produces
a floating point number.
.. _PolIfCoeffIsPlusOrMinusOne:
``\PolIfCoeffIsPlusOrMinusOne{A}{B}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This macro is a priori undefined.
It is defined via the default `\\PolTypesetCmd{raw_coeff}`_ to be
used if needed in the execution of `\\PolTypesetMonomialCmd`_,
e.g. to insert a ``\cdot`` in front of ``\PolVar^{\PolIndex}`` if
the coefficient is not plus or minus one.
The macro will execute ``A`` if the coefficient has been found to be
plus or minus one, and ``B`` if not.
.. _PolLeadingCoeff:
``\PolLeadingCoeff{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the leading coefficient.
.. _PolNthCoeff:
``\PolNthCoeff{polname}{number}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It expands to the raw ``N``-th coefficient (``0/1[0]`` if the index
number is out of range). With ``N=-1``, ``-2``, ... expands to the
leading coefficients.
.. _PolDegree:
``\PolDegree{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It expands to the degree. This is ``-1`` if zero polynomial but this
may change in future. Should it then expand to ``-\infty`` ?
.. _PolIContent:
``\PolIContent{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It expands to the contents of the polynomial, i.e. to the positive
fraction such that dividing by this fraction produces a polynomial
with integer coefficients having no common prime divisor.
See `\\PolMakePrimitive `_.
.. _PolToExpr:
``\PolToExpr{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands [#]_ to ``coeff_N*x^N+...`` (descending powers.)
.. [#] in a ``\write``, ``\edef``, or ``\csname...\endcsname``, but
not under ``\romannumeral-`0``.
By default zero coefficients are skipped (issue ``\poltoexpralltrue`` to
get all of them in output).
By default, no ``+`` sign before negative coefficients, for
compliance with Maple input format (but see
`\\PolToExprTermPrefix{raw_coeff}`_.) Also, like the default
behaviour of `\\PolTypeset{polname}`_, does not print (for the non
constant terms) coefficients equal to plus or minus one. The degree
one monomial is output as ``x``, not ``x^1``. Complete customization is
possible, see next macros.
Of course ``\PolToExpr{f}`` can be inserted in a ``\poldef``, as the
latter expands token by token, hence will force complete expansion
of ``\PolToExpr{f}``, but a simple ``f(x)`` is more efficient for
the identical result.
.. _PolToExprOneTerm:
``\PolToExprOneTerm{raw_coeff}{number}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This two argument expandable command takes care of the monomial and
its coefficient. The default definition is done in order for
coefficients of absolute value ``1`` not be printed explicitely
(except of course for the constant term). Also by default, the
monomial of degree one is ``x`` not ``x^1``, and ``x^0`` is skipped.
For compatibility with Maple input requirements, by default a ``*``
always precedes the ``x^number``, except if the coefficient is a one
or a minus one. See `\\PolToExprTimes`_.
.. _PolToExprOneTermStyleA:
``\PolToExprOneTermStyleA{raw_coeff}{number}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Holds the default package meaning of
`\\PolToExprOneTerm{raw_coeff}{number}`_.
.. _PolToExprOneTermStyleB:
``\PolToExprOneTermStyleB{raw_coeff}{number}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
For output in this style::
2*x^11/3+3*x^8/7-x^5-x^4/4-x^3-x^2/2-2*x+1
issue ``\let\PolToExprOneTerm\PolToExprOneTermStyleB`` before usage of
``\PolToExpr``. Note that then ``\PolToExprCmd`` isn't used at all.
To revert to package default, issue
``\let\PolToExprOneTerm\PolToExprOneTermStyleA``.
To suppress the ``*``'s, cf. `\\PolToExprTimes`_.
.. _PolToExprCmd:
``\PolToExprCmd{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
It is the one-argument macro used by the package definition of
``\PolToExprOneTerm`` for the coefficients themselves (when not
equal to plus or minus one), and it defaults to
``\xintPRaw{\xintRawWithZeros{#1}}``. One will have to redefine it
to ``\xintIrr{#1}`` or to ``\xintPRaw{\xintIrr{#1}}`` to obtain in the
output forcefully reduced coefficients.
.. _PolToExprTermPrefix:
``\PolToExprTermPrefix{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Defined identically as `\\PolTypesetCmdPrefix{raw_coeff}`_. It
prefixes with a plus sign for non-negative coefficients, because
they don't carry one by themselves.
.. _PolToExprVar:
``\PolToExprVar``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This expands to the variable to use in output (it does not have to
be a single letter, may be an expandable macro.) Initial definition
is ``x``.
.. _PolToExprTimes:
``\PolToExprTimes``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This expands to the symbol used for multiplication of an
``x^{number}`` by the corresponding coefficient. The default is
``*``. Redefine the macro to expand to nothing to get rid of it (but
this will give output incompatible with some professional computer
algebra software).
.. _PolToExpr*:
``\PolToExpr*{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to ``coeff_0+coeff_1*x+coeff_2*x^2+...`` (ascending powers).
Customizable like `\\PolToExpr{polname}`_ via the same macros.
.. _PolToFloatExpr:
``\PolToFloatExpr{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Similar to `\\PolToExpr{polname}`_ but uses `\\PolToFloatExprCmd
<\\PolToFloatExprCmd{raw_coeff}>`_
which by default rounds and converts the coefficients to floating
point format.
.. note::
It is not necessary to have issued
`\\PolGenFloatVariant{polname}`_. The rounded coefficients are
not easily recoverable from the ``\xintfloatexpr`` polynomial
function hence ``\PolToFloatExprCmd`` operates from the *exact*
coefficients anew.
Attention that both macros obey the prevailing float precision.
If it is changed between those macro calls, then a mismatch
exists between the coefficients as used in ``\xintfloatexpr`` and
those output by ``\PolToFloatExpr{polname}``.
.. _PolToFloatExprOneTerm:
``\PolToFloatExprOneTerm{raw_coeff}{number}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Similar to `\\PolToExprOneTerm
<\\PolToExprOneTerm{raw_coeff}{number}>`_. But does not treat
especially coefficients equal to plus or minus one.
.. _PolToFloatExprCmd:
``\PolToFloatExprCmd{raw_coeff}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
It is the one-argument macro used by ``\PolToFloatExprOneTerm``.
Its package definition is ``\xintFloat{#1}``.
.. caution::
Currently (xint_ ``1.3c``) ``\xintFloat{0}`` outputs ``0.e0``
which is perfectly acceptable input for Python, but not for
Maple. Thus, one should better leave the `\\poltoexprallfalse`_
toggle to its default ``\iffalse`` state, if one intends to use
the output in a Maple worksheet.
But even then the zero polynomial will cause a problem. Workaround::
\renewcommand\PolToFloatExprCmd[1]{\xintiiifZero{#1}{0.0}{\xintFloat{#1}}}
Usage of ``\xintiiifZero`` and not ``\xintifZero`` is only for
optimization (I can't help it) because ``#1`` is known to be
in ``xintfrac`` raw format.
.. _PolToFloatExpr*:
``\PolToFloatExpr*{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Typesets in ascending powers.
.. _PolToList:
``\PolToList{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to ``{coeff_0}{coeff_1}...{coeff_N}`` with ``N`` = degree, and
``coeff_N`` the leading coefficient
(the zero polynomial does give ``{0/1[0]}`` and not an
empty output.)
.. _PolToCSV:
``\PolToCSV{polname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to ``coeff_0, coeff_1, coeff_2, ....., coeff_N``, starting
with constant term and ending with leading coefficient. Converse
to `\\PolFromCSV <\\PolFromCSV{polname}{\}_>`_.
.. _PolSturmChainLength:
``\PolSturmChainLength{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Returns the integer ``N`` such that ``sturmname_N`` is the last one
in the Sturm chain ``sturmname_0``, ``sturmname_1``, ...
See `\\PolToSturm{polname}{sturmname}`_.
.. _PolSturmIfZeroExactlyKnown:
``\PolSturmIfZeroExactlyKnown{sturmname}{index}{A}{B}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Executes ``A`` if the ``index``\ -th interval reduces to a singleton,
i.e. the root is known exactly, else ``B``.
.. note::
``index`` is allowed to be something like ``1+2*3`` as it is fed
to ``\the\numexpr...\relax``.
.. _PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft:
``\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the left end-point for the ``index``\ -th interval, as
computed by some earlier `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_.
.. note::
Of course, this is kept updated by macros such as
`\\PolRefineInterval{sturmname}{index} `_.
The value is pre-formatted using `\\PolDecTostring
`_.
.. _PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight:
``\PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the right end-point for the ``index``\ -th interval as
computed by some earlier `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_ and
possibly refined afterwards.
The value is pre-formatted using `\\PolDecTostring
`_.
.. _PolSturmIsolatedZeroMultiplicity:
``\PolSturmIsolatedZeroMultiplicity{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the multiplicity of the unique root contained in the
``index``\ -th interval.
.. attention::
A prior execution of `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}`_ is mandatory.
See `The degree nine polynomial with 0.99, 0.999, 0.9999 as triple
roots`_ for an example of use.
.. _PolSturmNbOfIsolatedZeros:
``\PolSturmNbOfIsolatedZeros{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the number of real roots of the polynomial
``_0``, i.e. the number of distinct real roots of the
polynomial originally used to create the Sturm chain via
`\\PolToSturm{polname}{sturmname}`_.
.. warning::
The next few macros counting roots, with or without multiplicities,
less than or equal to some value, are under evaluation and may be
removed from the package if their utility is judged to be not high
enough. They can be re-coded at user level on the basis of the other
documented package macros anyway.
``\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the number of distinct roots (of the polynomial used to
create the Sturm chain) less than or equal to the ``value`` (i.e. a
number of fraction recognizable by the xintfrac_ macros).
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
And the argument is a ``sturmname``, not a ``polname`` (this is
why the macro contains Sturm in its name), simply to be reminded
of the above constraint.
``\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\LessThanOrEqualToExpr{expression}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the number of distinct roots (of the polynomial
used to create the Sturm chain) which are less than or equal to the
given ``expression``.
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
``\PolSturmNbWithMultOfRootsOf{sturmname}\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the number counted with multiplicities of the roots (of
the polynomial used to create the Sturm chain) which are less than
or equal to the given ``value``.
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}`_ (or the double starred
variant) must have been executed beforehand.
``\PolSturmNbWithMultOfRootsOf{sturmname}\LessThanOrEqualToExpr{expression}``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the total number of roots (counted with multiplicities)
which are less than or equal to the given ``expression``.
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros*{sturmname}`_ (or the double starred
variant) must have been executed beforehand.
``\PolSturmNbOfRationalRoots{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the number of rational roots (without multiplicities).
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
``\PolSturmNbOfRationalRootsWithMultiplicities{sturmname}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the number of rational roots (counted with multiplicities).
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
``\PolSturmRationalRoot{sturmname}{k}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the ``k``\ th rational root (they are ordered and indexed
starting at 1 for the most negative).
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
``\PolSturmRationalRootIndex{sturmname}{k}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to ``index`` of the ``k``\ th rational root as part of the
ordered real roots (without multiplicities). I.e., above macro
`\\PolSturmRationalRoot{sturmname}{k}`_ is equivalent to this
nested call::
\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft{sturmname}{\PolSturmRationalRootIndex{sturmname}{k}}
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
``\PolSturmRationalRootMultiplicity{sturmname}{k}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Expands to the multiplicity of the ``k``\ th rational root.
.. attention::
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_ must have been executed
beforehand.
.. _PolIntervalWidth:
``\PolIntervalWidth{sturmname}{index}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The ``10^E`` width of the current ``index``\ -th root localization
interval. Output is in xintfrac_ raw ``1/1[E]`` format (if not zero).
Expandable macros for use within execution of ``\PolPrintIntervals``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These macros are for usage within custom user redefinitions of
`\\PolPrintIntervalsKnownRoot`_, `\\PolPrintIntervalsUnknownRoot`_, or
in redefinitions of `\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero`_ (used in the
default for the former) and of `\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint`_,
`\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint`_ (used in the default for the
latter).
.. attention::
Some macros formerly mentioned here got removed at 0.7:
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheEndPoint``,
``\PolIfEndPointIsPositive{A}{B}``,
``\PolIfEndPointIsNegative{A}{B}``,
``\PolIfEndPointIsZero{A}{B}``.
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheVar``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the name (default ``Z``) used for representing the roots,
which was passed as optional argument ``varname`` to
`\\PolPrintIntervals[varname]{sturmname}`_.
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the index of the considered interval (indexing starting
at 1 for the leftmost interval).
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheSturmName``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Expands to the argument which was passed as ``sturmname`` to
`\\PolPrintIntervals[varname]{sturmname}`_.
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheLeftEndPoint``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The left end point of the interval, as would be produced by
`\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft `_ if it was
used with arguments the Sturm chain name and interval index returned
by `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheSturmName`_ and
`\\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex`_.
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheRightEndPoint``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The right end point of the interval, as would be produced by
`\\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight `_ for
this Sturm chain name and index.
``\PolPrintIntervalsTheMultiplicity``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The multiplicity of the unique root within the interval of index
`\\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex`_. Makes sense only if the starred (or
double-starred) variant of `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros
`_ was used earlier.
.. _PolDecToString:
``\PolDecToString{decimal number}``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is a utility macro to print decimal numbers. It has been
backported to xintfrac_ (release ``1.3`` of ``2018/03/01``) under
the name ``\xintDecToString``, and the ``polexpr`` macro is simply
now an alias to it.
For example
``\PolDecToString{123.456e-8}`` will expand to ``0.00000123456``
and ``\PolDecToString{123.450e-8}`` to ``0.00000123450`` which
illustrates that trailing zeros are not trimmed. To trim trailing
zeroes, one can use ``\PolDecToString{\xintREZ{#1}}``.
The precise behaviour of this macro may evolve in future releases of
xint_.
Booleans (with default setting as indicated)
--------------------------------------------
``\xintverbosefalse``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is actually an xintexpr_ configuration. Setting it to
``true`` triggers the writing of information to the log when new
polynomials are defined.
.. caution::
The macro meanings as written to the log are to be considered
unstable and undocumented internal structures.
``\poltypesetallfalse``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If ``true``, `\\PolTypeset{polname}`_ will also typeset the vanishing
coefficients.
``\poltoexprallfalse``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If ``true``, `\\PolToExpr{polname}`_ and `\\PolToFloatExpr{polname}`_ will
also include the vanishing coefficients in their outputs.
``\polexprsetup``
-----------------
Serves to customize the package. Currently only two keys are
recognized:
- ``norr``: the postfix that `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_
should append to ``sturmname`` to declare the primitive polynomial
obtained from original one after removal of all rational roots.
The default value is ``_norr`` (standing for “no rational roots”).
- ``sqfnorr``: the postfix that `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_
should append to ``sturmname`` to declare the primitive polynomial
obtained from original one after removal of all rational roots and
suppression of all multiplicities.
The default value is ``_sqf_norr`` (standing for “square-free with
no rational roots”).
The package executes ``\polexprsetup{norr=_norr,
sqfnorr=_sqf_norr}`` as default.
Technicalities
--------------
- The catcode of the semi-colon is reset temporarily by `\\poldef
`_ macro in case some other package (for example the French
babel module) may have made it active. This will fail though if the
whole thing was already part of a macro argument, in such cases one
can use `\\PolDef{f}{P(x)} `_
rather. The colon in ``:=`` may be active with no consequences.
- As a consequence of xintfrac_ addition and subtraction always using
least common multiples for the denominators [#]_, user-chosen common
denominators survive additions and multiplications. For example, this::
\poldef P(x):= 1/2 + 2/2*x + 3/2*x^3 + 4/2*x^4;
\poldef Q(x):= 1/3 + (2/3)x + (3/3)x^3 + (4/3)x^4;
\poldef PQ(x):= P(x)Q(x);
gives internally the polynomial::
1/6+4/6*x^1+4/6*x^2+6/6*x^3+20/6*x^4+16/6*x^5+9/6*x^6+24/6*x^7+16/6*x^8
where all coefficients have the same denominator 6. Notice though that
``\PolToExpr{PQ}`` outputs the ``6/6*x^3`` as ``x^3`` because (by
default) it recognizes and filters out coefficients equal to one or
minus one (since release ``0.3``). One can use for example
``\PolToCSV{PQ}`` to see the internally stored coefficients.
.. [#] prior to ``0.4.1``, ``polexpr`` used to temporarily patch
during the parsing of polynomials the xintfrac_ macros. This
patch was backported to xint_ at release ``1.3``.
- `\\PolDiff{polname_1}{polname_2}`_ always applies ``\xintIrr`` to the
resulting coefficients, except that the *power of ten* part ``[N]``
(for example an input in scientific notation such as ``1.23e5`` gives
``123/1[3]`` internally in xintfrac) is not taken into account in the
reduction of the fraction. This is tentative and may change.
Same remark for `\\PolAntiDiff{polname_1}{polname_2}`_.
- Currently, the package stores all coefficients from index ``0`` to
index equal to the polynomial degree inside a single macro, as a list.
This data structure is obviously very inefficient for polynomials of
high degree and few coefficients (as an example with ``\poldef
f(x):=x^1000 + x^500;`` the subsequent definition ``\poldef g(x):=
f(x)^2;`` will do of the order of 1,000,000 multiplications and
additions involvings only zeroes... which does take time). This
may change in the future.
- As is to be expected internal structures of the package are barely
documented and unstable. Don't use them.
CHANGE LOG
----------
- v0.1 (2018/01/11): initial release. Features:
* The `\\poldef `_ parser itself,
* Differentiation and anti-differentiation,
* Euclidean division and GCDs,
* Various utilities such as `\\PolFromCSV `_,
`\\PolMapCoeffs `_,
`\\PolToCSV `_, `\\PolToExpr `_, ...
Only one-variable polynomials so far.
- v0.2 (2018/01/14)
* Fix: ``"README thinks \numexpr recognizes ^ operator"``.
* Convert README to reStructuredText markup.
* Move main documentation from README to separate ``polexpr.txt`` file.
* Provide ``polexpr.html`` as obtained via DocUtils_ ``rst2html.py``.
* Convert README to (CTAN compatible) Markdown markup.
Due to lack of available time the test suite might not be extensive
enough. Bug reports are very welcome!
- v0.3 (2018/01/17)
* bug fixes:
- the ``0.1`` `\\PolEval `_ accepted expressions for its second
argument, but this was removed by mistake at ``0.2``. Restored.
**Attention**: at ``0.4`` this has been reverted again, and
`\\PolEval{P}\\AtExpr{foo} `_ syntax is needed for
using expressions in the second argument.
* incompatible or breaking changes:
- `\\PolToExpr `_ now by default uses *descending*
powers (it also treats differently coefficients equal to 1 or -1.)
Use `\\PolToExpr* `_ for *ascending* powers.
- `\\PolEval `_ reduced the output to smallest terms,
but as this is costly with big fractions and not needed if e.g.
wrapped in an ``\xintRound`` or ``\xintFloat``, this step has been
removed; the former meaning is available as `\\PolEvalReduced
`_.
* new (or newly documented) macros:
- `\\PolTypesetCmd `_
- `\\PolTypesetCmdPrefix `_
- `\\PolTypesetMonomialCmd `_
- `\\PolEvalReducedAt `_
- `\\PolToFloatExpr `_
- `\\PolToExprOneTerm `_
- `\\PolToFloatExprOneTerm `_
- `\\PolToExprCmd `_
- `\\PolToFloatExprCmd `_
- `\\PolToExprTermPrefix `_
- `\\PolToExprVar `_
- `\\PolToExprTimes `_
* improvements:
- documentation has a table of contents, internal hyperlinks,
standardized signature notations and added explanations.
- one can do ``\PolLet{g}={f}`` or ``\PolLet{g}{f}``.
- ``\PolToExpr{f}`` is highly customizable.
- `\\poldef `_ and other defining macros prepare the polynomial
functions for usage within ``\xintthefloatexpr`` (or
``\xintdeffloatvar``). Coefficients are pre-rounded to the
floating point precision. Indispensible for numerical algorithms,
as exact fractions, even reduced, quickly become very big. See the
documentation about how to use the exact polynomials also in
floating point context.
**Attention**: this has been reverted at ``0.4``. The macro
`\\PolGenFloatVariant `_ must be used for
generation floating point polynomial functions.
- v0.3.1 (2018/01/18)
Fixes two typos in example code included in the documentation.
- v0.4 (2018/02/16)
* bug fixes:
- when Euclidean division gave a zero remainder, the internal
representation of this zero polynomial could be faulty; this
could cause mysterious bugs in conjunction with other package
macros such as `\\PolMapCoeffs `_.
- `\\PolGCD `_ was buggy in case of first polynomial being
of lesser degree than the second one.
* breaking changes:
- formerly `\\PolEval{P}\\At{foo} `_ allowed ``foo`` to
be an expression, which was transparently handled via
``\xinttheexpr``. Now, ``foo`` must be a fraction (or a macro
expanding to such) in the format acceptable by ``xintfrac.sty``
macros. Use `\\PolEval{P}\\AtExpr{foo} `_ for more
general arguments using expression syntax. E.g., if ``foo`` is the
name of a variable known to ``\xintexpr``.
The same holds for `\\PolEvalReduced `_
and `\\PolFloatEval `_.
- the ``3.0`` automatic generation of floating point variants has
been reverted. Not only do *not* the package macros automatically
generate floating point variants of newly created polynomials,
they actually make pre-existing such variant undefined.
See `\\PolGenFloatVariant `_.
* new non-expandable macros:
- `\\PolGenFloatVariant `_
- `\\PolGlobalLet `_
- `\\PolTypesetOne `_
- `\\PolQuo `_
- `\\PolRem `_
- `\\PolToSturm `_
- `\\PolToSturm\* `_
- `\\PolSetToSturmChainSignChangesAt `_
- `\\PolSetToNbOfZerosWithin `_
- `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros `_
- `\\PolRefineInterval* `_
- `\\PolRefineInterval[N] `_
- `\\PolEnsureIntervalLength `_
- `\\PolEnsureIntervalLengths `_
- `\\PolPrintIntervals `_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintExactZero `_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintLeftEndPoint `_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintRightEndPoint `_
- `\\PolReduceCoeffs* `_
- `\\PolMakeMonic `_
* new expandable macros:
- `\\PolToExprOneTermStyleA `_
- `\\PolIfCoeffIsPlusOrMinusOne `_
- `\\PolLeadingCoeff `_
- `\\PolSturmChainLength `_
- `\\PolSturmNbOfIsolatedZeros `_
- `\\PolSturmIfZeroExactlyKnown `_
- `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroLeft `_
- `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroRight `_
- ``\PolPrintIntervalsTheEndPoint`` (removed at 0.7)
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheIndex`_
- ``\PolIfEndPointIsPositive`` (removed at 0.7)
- ``\PolIfEndPointIsNegative`` (removed at 0.7)
- ``\PolIfEndPointIsZero`` (removed at 0.7)
- `\\PolIntervalWidth `_
- `\\PolDecToString `_
* improvements:
The main new feature is implementation of the `Sturm algorithm`_
for localization of the real roots of polynomials.
- v0.4.1 (2018/03/01)
Synced with xint 1.3.
- v0.4.2 (2018/03/03)
Documentation fix.
- v0.5 (2018/04/08)
* bug fixes:
- `\\PolGet{polname}\\fromarray\\macro`_ crashed when ``\macro`` was
an xinttools_ array macro with no items. It now produces the zero
polynomial.
* breaking changes:
- `\\PolToSturm`_ creates primitive integer coefficients polynomials.
This speeds up localization of roots via
`\\PolSturmIsolateZeros`_. In case of user protests the author
will make available again the code producing the bona fide Sturm
polynomials as used formerly.
- polynomials created from `\\PolFromCSV`_ or `\\PolGet `_
get their coefficients normalized via xintfrac_\ 's ``\xintRaw``.
* experimental change:
- optional argument to `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros`_ (see `The
degree 41 polynomial with -2, -1.9, -1.8, ..., 0, 0.1, ..., 1.9, 2
as roots`_ for usage). It will presumably be replaced in future by
an interval specification.
* new non-expandable macro:
- `\\PolMakePrimitive`_
* new expandable macro:
- `\\PolIContent`_
- v0.5.1 (2018/04/22)
* new feature:
- the character ``'`` can be used in polynomial names.
- v0.6 (2018/11/20)
* bugfix:
- the starred variant `\\PolToSturm*{polname}{sturmname}`_ was
broken. On the occasion of the fix, its meaning has been modified,
see its documentation.
- using `\\PolToSturm `_ with a constant polynomial
caused a division by zero error.
* new macro:
- `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros* `_
acts like the `non-starred variant
`_ then computes all the multiplicities.
* new expandable macros:
- `\\PolSturmIsolatedZeroMultiplicity{sturmname}{index}`_
- `\\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}`_
- `\\PolSturmNbOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualToExpr{expression}`_
- `\\PolSturmNbWithMultOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualTo{value}`_
- `\\PolSturmNbWithMultOfRootsOf{sturmname}\\LessThanOrEqualToExpr{expression}`_
- v0.7 (2018/12/08), v0.7.1 (bugfix), v0.7.2 (2nd bugfix) (2018/12/09)
* breaking changes:
- although `\\PolPrintIntervals[varname]{sturmname}`_ default output
remains the same, some auxiliary macros for user-customization
have been removed: ``\PolPrintIntervalsTheEndPoint``,
``\PolIfEndPointIsPositive{A}{B}``,
``\PolIfEndPointIsNegative{A}{B}``, and
``\PolIfEndPointIsZero{A}{B}``.
* bugfix:
- it could happen that, contrarily to documentation, an interval
computed by `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros{sturmname}`_ had zero as an
endpoint,
- `\\PolEnsureIntervalLength{sturmname}{index}{E}`_ could under
certain circumstances erroneously replace a non-zero root by
zero,
- `\\PolEnsureIntervalLengths{sturmname}{E}`_ crashed when used with
a polynomial with no real roots, hence for which no isolation intervals
existed (thanks to Thomas Söll for report).
* new macros:
- `\\PolSturmIsolateZeros**{sturmname}`_
- `\\PolSturmIsolateZerosGetMultiplicitiesAndRationalRoots{sturmname}`_
- `\\PolSturmIsolateZerosAndFindRationalRoots{sturmname}`_
- `\\polexprsetup`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervals* `_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsNoRealRoots`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsBeginEnv`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsEndEnv`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsKnownRoot`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsUnknownRoot`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsPrintMultiplicity`_
* new expandable macros:
- `\\PolSturmNbOfRationalRoots{sturmname}`_
- `\\PolSturmNbOfRationalRootsWithMultiplicities{sturmname}`_
- `\\PolSturmRationalRoot{sturmname}{k}`_
- `\\PolSturmRationalRootIndex{sturmname}{k}`_
- `\\PolSturmRationalRootMultiplicity{sturmname}{k}`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheVar`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheSturmName`_
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheMultiplicity`_
- v0.7.3 (2019/02/04)
* bugfix:
- Debugging information not destined to user showed in log if root
finding was done under ``\xintverbosetrue`` regime.
- `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheVar`_ remained defined after
`\\PolPrintIntervals`_ but was left undefined after
`\\PolPrintIntervals*`_ (reported by Jürgen Gilg). Now remains
defined in both cases, and `\\PolPrintIntervalsTheSturmName`_
also.
- Polynomial names ending in digits caused errors (reported by Thomas
Söll).
- v0.7.4 (2019/02/12)
* bugfix:
- 20000000000 is too big for ``\numexpr``, shouldn't I know that?
Thanks to Jürgen Gilg for report.
- v0.7.5 (2020/01/31)
Synced with xint 1.4. Requires it.
Acknowledgments
---------------
Thanks to Jürgen Gilg whose question about xint_ usage for
differentiating polynomials was the initial trigger leading to this
package, and to Jürgen Gilg and Thomas Söll for testing it on some
concrete problems.
Renewed thanks to them on occasion of the ``0.6`` and ``0.7`` releases for their
continued interest.
See README.md for the License.
.. _xinttools:
.. _xintfrac:
.. _xintexpr:
.. _xint: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/xint
.. _Wilkinson polynomial: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkinson%27s_polynomial
.. _Sturm algorithm:
.. _Sturm Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturm%27s_theorem
.. _DocUtils: http://docutils.sourceforge.net/docs/index.html